The Marks of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. Volume X, part III, pg. The list continues on the next page not included here. This map shows the major areas of slaving activities and embarkation ports. Based on David Eltis, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and Herbert Klein, eds. Map drawn by Rebecca Wrenn. Janvier offers only a brief description of a slave auction held in New Amsterdam in Pyle chose to illustrate the auction without relying on evidence from primary sources. On August 15, , the slave ship Gideon arrived in the New Amsterdam harbor with slaves— men and women.
List of names of the purchasers of "a lot of male and female negros"
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery , comprising the enslavement primarily of Africans and African Americans , that existed in the United States of America from its founding in until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in Slavery was established throughout European colonization in the Americas. From early colonial days , it was practiced in Britain's colonies , including the Thirteen Colonies which formed the United States. Under the law, an enslaved person was treated as property and could be bought, sold, or given away. Slavery lasted in about half of U. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping and convict leasing.
Slave sales as an important feature of the Virginia economy have their origins in changes that occurred late in the eighteenth century. In , the General Assembly abolished entail , a practice that required large estates to be kept intact through generations. In , the assembly abolished primogeniture , which required that those estates be passed on to the eldest son. A dozen years after that, the assembly prohibited entails on large groups of inherited slaves. While encouraging equality among whites, these acts also had the effect of breaking up African American communities and families by putting many people up for sale. At the same time, many planters in Virginia and Maryland shifted from tobacco to wheat production, which required less labor. The slave populations in the Upper South already had a more even balance between men and women, and with a better climate than the Lower South, fewer enslaved people died prematurely. This meant that enslaved communities grew naturally in ways that allowed planters the opportunity to sell or hire out people who were not otherwise needed to perform plantation labor. Slaveholders looking to sell found an expanding market in the Lower South, where the cotton gin had made the production of cotton much easier.
For black men and women, slavery was an equally devastating experience. Both were torn from homeland and family. Both were forced to perform grueling labor, subjected to mental and physical degradation, and denied their most basic rights. Enslaved men and women were beaten mercilessly, separated from loved ones arbitrarily, and, regardless of sex, treated as property in the eyes of the law. Africans on the slave bark Wildfire. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.